This is a view of Muzdalifah, where Hajj pilgrims arrive after sunset from Arafat on the 9th Dhul Hijjah (second day of Hajj).
- Muzdalifah stretches from the Valley of Muhassar to the mountains of Ma’zamayn. It is four kilometres long and covers an area of 12.25km2.
- Referring to Mudalifah, Allah (swt) mentions in Surah Baqarah in the Holy Quran:
“When you leave Arafat, then remember Allah at the Mash’arul Haram.” (‘The Sacred Monument’, referring to Muzdalifah according to Abdullah bin Umar (r.a.))
- During the farewell Hajj, the Prophet (s.a.w.) performed the Maghrib and Isha salahs together at Muzdalifah. He stayed at the spot where the present Masjid Mash’arul Haram currently is (towards the Qibla side). From there, the Prophet (s.a.w.) said:
“Although I am staying here, you may stay anywhere throughout Muzdalifah.” [Muslim]
- During Hajj It is waajib to perform Maghrib and Isha together in Muzdalifah at Isha time. Wuqoof (stay) of Muzdalifah is also waajib and it’s time begins from sub’h saadiq and ends at sunrise. If one spent even a little portion of their time in Muzdalifah, he/she will be absolved of this obligation. However, it is best to remain until just before sunrise.
- Although pebbles for pelting the Jamarat may be collected from anywhere, they are best collected from Muzdalifah.
- Muzdalifah is also called Jam’ as it is a place where people gather.
The above picture shows Jabal-ur-Rehmah (Mountain of Mercy) on the plain of Arafat. Standing at Arafat is the fundamental requirement of Hajj and pilgrims come here on the 9th Dhul Hijjah (second day of Hajj).
- The common meaning of the word Arafat is ‘to know’. After being taken out of Jannah and placed on Earth, it was here that Adam (a.s.) and Hawa (a.s.) met up. Standing on Arafat is an essential part of the Hajj; whoever misses the standing on Arafat has missed Hajj, because the Prophet (s.a.w.) said:
“Hajj is Arafat.” [al-Hakim]
- The day of Arafah has many virtues, as was narrated in many Ahadith. Aishah (r.a) narrated that the Prophet (s.a.w.) said:
"There is no day in which Allah sets free more souls from the fire of hell than on the day of Arafat. And on that day Allah draws near to the earth and by way of exhibiting His Pride remarks to the angels, 'What is the desire of these (servants of mine)?" [Muslim]
- In another Hadith the Prophet (s.a.w.) said:
"Apart from the day of the Battle of Badr there is no day on which the Shaytan is seen to be more humiliated, more rejected, more depressed and more infuriated, than on the day of Arafat, and indeed all this is only because of beholding the abundance of descending mercy (on the day) and Allah's forgiveness of the great sins of the servants.“ [Mishkat]
- A man from among the Jews came to Umar (r.a.) and said: “O Amirul-Muminin, there is a verse in your Book which, if it had been revealed to us Jews, we would have taken that day as a festival.” Umar (r.a.) asked, “Which Verse?” to which the Jew replied,
“This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” [al-Maidah, 5:3]
- Umar (r.a.) said: “We know the day and the place in which that was revealed to the Prophet (s.a.w.); it was when he was standing on Arafat, on a Friday.” There once existed a masjid on the right slope of Jabal-ur-Rehmah called Masid Sakhrah. It signified the spot where the Prophet (s.a.w.), after leading the Zuhr and Asr salahs faced towards the Qibla and engaged in dua till sunset. It was at this spot where the above verse of the Quran was revealed. Note that it is stated in a Hadith that no further verses were revealed after this one with regards to halal and haram.
- One of the virtues of the day of Arafah is that fasting this day expiates for the sins of the past and coming year. It was reported from Abu Qatadah that a man said:
“O Messenger of Allah, what do you think of fasting on the day of Arafat?” He said: “It expiates for the sins of the previous year and of the coming year” [Muslim]
- This (fasting) is mustahab (desirable) for those who are not on Hajj. In the case of the one who is on Hajj, it is not Sunnah for him to fast on the Day of Arafat, because the Prophet (s.a.w.) did not fast on this day when he was in Arafat.
The masjid above is Masjid Nimrah and is located on the plain of Arafat. When the Prophet (s.a.w.) was at Arafat on his farewell Hajj on the ninth day of Dhul Hijjah 10 A.H. (632 CE) he camped here. After midday he delivered his famous sermon (reproduced below) at Waadi Urnah nearby while seated on his camel, after which he led the salah. More than 100,000 Sahabah accompanied him on this Hajj.
- After praising, and thanking Allah the Prophet (s.a.w.) said: "O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present today.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn 'Abdul Muttalib (Prophet's uncle) shall henceforth be waived...
- Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.
O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.
All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.
Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Quran and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed your message to your people".
- Shortly after the Prophet (s.a.w.) had finished addressing the people, he received a revelation from Allah:
“Today I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favour upon you, and I have chosen Islam as your religion.” [5:3]
- In the second century of Islam, a Masjid Nimrah was built at the spot where the Prophet (s.a.w.) delivered the sermon and led the salah. Because Waadi Urna, where the sermon was delivered is outside the boundaries of Arafat, that section of the masjid is naturally also outside the boundaries. When the masjid was extended afterwards, it then became divided into two sections; the front section which was the location of the original masjid being outside Arafat and the back section being within the boundaries. After renovations, signboards were erected inside the masjid to inform people about this matter so that after performing their Zuhr and Asr salahs in congregation, they could either move to the back of the masjid or outside to spend the rest of their time in Arafat. Should a person spend all his time from midday to sunset in the front section of the masjid, his stay at Arafat will be invalid and his Hajj will therefore be incomplete.
Masjid Aisha, also known as Masjid at-Tan’eem marks the place where Ummul-Mu’mineen Aisha (r.a.) went to enter into Ihram for Umrah when the Prophet (s.a.w.) told her to do so during the farewell Hajj. The masjid lies 7.5 km south from Makkah on the road to Madinah and is the closest of all the boundary points.
- Jaabir (r.a.) reports that because Aisha (r.a.) was experiencing menstrual cycle the Prophet (s.a.w.) intstructed her to perform all the various rites of Hajj except for the Tawaaf. She then performed the Tawaaf after her cycle had ended. She then said, “O Rasulullah (s.a.w.)! While you have performed Hajj and Umrah, I have performed only Hajj.” The Prophet (s.a.w.) then instructed her brother Abdur-Rahman (r.a.) to take her to Tan’eem and it was from there that she performed her Umrah after her Hajj during the month of Dhul Hijjah.
This library, in She’eb Banu Hashim in Makkah is sited on the place where the Prophet (s.a.w.) was born on Monday 12 Rabi’ al-Awwal (April 22, 571 CE), in the Year of the Elephant. His ancestry can be traced back to the Prophet Ebrahim (a.s.).
- The Prophet (s.a.w.)’s father Abdullah died about six months before his birth. He had gone on a trading expedition to Gaza and Syria in the north and on the way back he had lodged with his grandmother’s family in Yathrib (later to be known as Madinah). He became ill, died and was buried there. Thus, the Prophet (s.a.w.) was born an orphan.
- While his mother Aminah was pregnant, she had a dream that a light was emitted from her lower body that illuminated the palaces of Syria. When she went into labour, Shifa bint Amr, the mother of Abdul Rahman bin Auf (r.a.) served as midwife. Abdul Muttalib received the news of his grandson’s birth with joy. He took the newborn to the Ka’bah and invoked Allah’s blessings and thanks. Believing his grandson would grow up to be highly praised, Abdul Muttalib named him Muhammad, which means “he who is praised.” In keeping with Arab tradition, he then shaved the baby’s head and circumcised him on the seventh day. Afterwards, he invited his fellow Makkans to a feast.
- According to the report of Abul-Fida, when the people asked Abdul Muttalib as to why he called his grandson Muhammad, preferring it to the names of his forefathers, he replied, “It is because I have a longing that my grandson should be praised and commended by one and all in the world.”
- Muhammad (s.a.w.) was first nursed by his mother, and then by Umm Ayman, his father’s slave. An Abyssinian whose real name was Barakah, she embraced Islam and migrated to Madinah, where she died six months after the Prophet’s death. Barakah (r.a.) thus had the distinction of being the person who knew the Prophet (s.a.w.) for the longest period of time.
- Thuwaybah, the slave of Muhammad (s.a.w.)’s uncle Abu Lahab, also nursed the infant. At that time, Thuwaybah was also nursing her own child, Masrooh, as well as Hamzah bin Abdul Muttalib and Abu Salamah bin Abdul Makhzoomi. Hence, these three men became foster brothers because they were nursed at the same breast. Thuwaybah suckled the Prophet (s.a.w.) for seven days and on the eighth day he was entrusted to Haleemah of the Banu Sa’d clan to bring him up in the desert.
- Certain miraculous events are reported to have occurred at the time the Prophet (s.a.w.) was born. However, most of them are not authentically related and therefore cannot be relied upon as decisive proof. This includes the narration which relates that some of the galleries of Kisraa's (the Persian King's) palace broke-up and collapsed, that the sacred-fire of the Magians, which had been burning for 1000 years in the Temple of Fars died-out and that some of the churches on Lake Saawah (in Syria) collapsed and sank down.
- However, it is authentically related that the Prophet (s.a.w.) said. "I am a result of the supplication of my father Ebrahim (a.s.) and the glad-tidings brought by Eesa (a.s.). And my mother - when she bore me - saw that a light shone out from her, which lit up the palaces in Syria." [al-Haakim]