Wednesday, October 31, 2012

House of Khadija (r.a.)

This is the approximate region, outside the Marwah exit, where the house of Ummul Mu’mineen Khadija (r.a.) was located. It was here that the Prophet (s.a.w.) lived from the time of his marriage to her until he emigrated to Madinah.

- When the Prophet (s.a.w.) married Khadija (r.a.), he moved out from the house of his uncle Abu Talib and into the house of his bride. At the time of their marriage he (s.a.w.) was 25 and Khadija (r.a.) was 40 years old. They stayed together for 25 years.

- Khadija (r.a.) was the Prophet’s (s.a.w.) first wife, he married none other during her lifetime. She bore all his children except for Ebrahim, who was born to Mariya Qibtiya (Mary the Copt). All of the children were born at her home. They were named (in order of birth) Qasim, Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthoom, Fatima, Abdullah, and Ebrahim (scholars, however, disagree about the exact number and order of births). All the sons passed away during childhood, but all the daughters lived to see their father become a prophet. Each daughter embraced Islam and migrated to Madinah, and all but Fatima died during the lifetime of the Prophet (s.a.w.). Fatima died six months after her father’s death.

- As well as their immediate family, the Prophet (s.a.w.) and Khadija (r.a.) also had extended members of their household. Barakah (who later became more commonly known as Umm Ayman), was the freed African slave the Prophet (s.a.w.) inherited from his father and whom he would sometimes affectionately address as ‘mother’. Zaid bin Haritha was a slave boy given as a bridal gift to the Prophet (s.a.w.) by Khadija (r.a.); he was set free by the Prophet (s.a.w.) but Zaid chose to stay with him and became an adopted son. The Prophet (s.a.w.) also took his cousin Ali into his household on account of the financial hardships his uncle Abu Talib was experiencing.

- When the Prophet (s.a.w.) received the first revelation of the Quran on Mount Hira he came back home and said to Khadija (r.a.), “Wrap me up, wrap me up.” Khadija (r.a.) wrapped him up in a blanket. When he (s.a.w.) regained peace of mind after a short while, he related to Khadija (r.a.) what had happened to him with the remark, “I feel my life threatened.” Khadija (r.a.) replied, “By no means, I swear to Allah that He would never put you to shame. You join the ties of relationship, you speak the truth, you bear people’s burdens, you help the destitute, you entertain guests and you mitigate the pains and grief suffered for the sake of truth.” She unhesitatingly believed in him, and accepted Islam immediately.

- The boycott in She’eb Abi Talib took a heavy toll on the health of Khadija (r.a.), and shortly after it was ended she passed away. She was the Prophet’s trusted advisor and loyal companion, and was known by the title “Mother of the believers.” The Prophet (saw) once said of Khadija (r.a.), “When no one believed me, she believed in me, when people accused me of lying, she affirmed my truthfulness, and when people tried to impoverish me, she made me a partner in her wealth.”

- When the idolaters of Makkah plotted to assassinate the Prophet (s.a.w.) they surrounded his house at night. The Prophet (s.a.w.) was inside along with Ali (r.a.). The Prophet (s.a.w.) told Ali (r.a.) to sleep in his bed and cover himself with his green garment and assured him full security under Allah’s protection and that no harm would come to him. The Prophet (s.a.w.) then came out of his house and cast a handful of dust on the assassins and managed to work his way through them reciting these verses of the Holy Qu’ran:

“And We have put a barrier before them, and a barrier behind them, and We have covered them up, so that they cannot see.” [36:9]

- The Prophet (s.a.w.) made his way to the house of Abu Bake (r.a.) from where they set off on the Hijrah to Madinah. Unaware of the Prophet’s escape, the would-be assassins waited for him to come out of his house. Only at dawn when Ali (r.a.) awoke and came out did they realize that they had been tricked. They interrogated him about the Prophet’s whereabouts, but he pleaded ignorance. They then dragged him to the Ka’bah and kept him captive there, but he divulged nothing.

- The Prophet (s.a.w.) stayed in the house of Khadija (r.a.) for around 29 years.

Please note that the location shown above is only an approximation and it is highly unlikely that the house existed at the same ground level.

Bab ul-Fatah

This gateway to the Ka’bah is know as Bab-ul-Fatah (Door of victory). It was from here that the Prophet (s.a.w.) entered during the conquest of Makkah on Friday, 20 Ramadhan 8 A.H.

- When the army of Muslims came towards Makkah, they first halted at Dhu Tuwa, not far from the city but within sight of it. When his camel Qaswa came to a halt, the Prophet (s.a.w.) bowed his head until his beard almost touched the saddle, in gratitude to Allah (s.a.w.).

- The Prophet (s.a.w.) then drew up his troops to enter Makkah. Khalid bin Waleed (r.a.) took command of the right and entered from the lower part of Makkah. Zubayr (r.a.) took command of the left wing and entered from the upper part of Kada. The centre part of the army was divided into two; half of it was led by Sa’d bin Ubadah (r.a.) and his son, and the other half, in which the Prophet (s.a.w.) himself rode, was led by Abu Ubaydah bin Jarrah (r.a.) who commanded the infantry. The sheer surprise of the attach stunned the Quraysh and very little resistance was put up against the Muslims.

- It is reported that Ali , the grandson of the Prophet (s.a.w.) through his daughter Zainab (r.a.), sat with the Prophet (s.a.w.) on the camel’s back during the triumphal entry into Makkah.

- A red leather tent was pitched for the Prophet (s.a.w.) in which he made wudhu (ablution) and performed 8 rakah of nafl salah, after which he rested for an hour or more. Then he called for Qaswa, and having put on his coat of mail and his helmet, he girt on his sword; but in his hand he carried a staff, and his visor was up. Some of those who had ridden with him that morning were already in line outside the tent, and they made an escort for him as he went to the Haram, talking to Abu Bakr (r.a.), who was at his side.

- The Prophet (s.a.w.) went to the Ka’bah and performed tawaf. Around the Ka’bah were three hundred and sixty idols. With a stick he was carrying he pushed them over, saying:

“The truth has come and falsehood has vanished away. Falsehood is ever vanishing” [Quran 17:81]

“The truth has come and falsehood originates not nor brings again” [Quran 34:49]

- After performing the circle the Prophet (s.a.w.) dismounted from his camel and prayed at the Maqame Ebrahim, then drank from the well of Zamzam. He then asked for the keys to the Ka’bah and went inside for a while. By the time he came out the Quraysh had filled the Haram , awaiting anxiously to see what he would do next.

- The Prophet (s.a.w.) stood at the door of the Ka’bah, holding its frame and spoke at length to his former persecutors humbled before him, explaining several laws of Islam and abolishing all pagan practices. Then he asked them, “Men of the Quraysh! What do you think I will do to you?”. They said, “We hope for the best. You are a noble brother and the son of a noble brother!”. The Prophet (s.a.w.) replied, “I say to you what Yusuf said to his brothers, “No reproach shall be on you this day.” Go on your way, you are free.”

- The Prophet (s.a.w.) ordered Bilal (r.a.) to climb up on the roof of the Ka’bah and give the athan (it is narrated that the Prophet (s.a.w.) himself offered his shoulder for Bilal (r.a.) to climb from). It was the first time the leaders of the Quraysh had heard the word of Allah rising up; the valley of Makkah reverberated with the sound.

- The Prophet (s.a.w.) entered the house of his cousin Umme Hani (r.a.), had a bath and prayed eight rakah of Salatul-Fath, the Prayer of Victory, to thank Allah for the conquest.

- Many eminent members of Quraysh, former bitter enemies, came into the fold of Islam on this day including Abu Sufyan and his wife Hind who had during the battle of Uhud chewed the liver of Hamza (r.a.).

House of Abbas (r.a.)

This is the approximate area, outside the place of Sa'ee where the house of Abbas (r.a.) was located. Abbas (r.a.) was a paternal uncle of the Prophet (s.a.w.) and protected him while he was in Makkah.

- Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib was about three years older than his nephew. A wealthy merchant, during the early years of Islam he protected the Prophet (s.a.w.) while he was in Makkah, but only became a convert after the Battle of Badr in 624 CE (2 AH). His descendants founded the Abbassid caliphate in 750 CE.

- In spite of his noble standing among the Quraysh, Abu Talib, another uncle of the Prophet (s.a.w.), was quite poor. He had a large family and did not have enough means to support them adequately. His poverty-stricken situation became much worse when a severe drought hit the Arabian peninsula. It was during this time of drought, before his call to prophethood, that the Prophet (s.a.w.)said to his uncle, Abbas: "Your brother, Abu Talib, has a large family. People as you see have been afflicted by this severe drought and are facing starvation. Let us go to Abu Talib and take over responsibility for some of his family. I will take one of his sons and you can taken another and we will look after them." Abbas approved and together they went to Abu Talib and said to him: "We want to ease some of the burden of your family until such time as this distressing period has gone." Abu Talib agreed and the Prophet (s.a.w.) took Ali into his household and Abbas took Jafar into his. Jafar stayed with his uncle, Abbas, until he was a young man.

- Abbas was one of the youngest brothers of the Prophet’s (s.a.w.) father Abdullah. During the early years while Islam was gaining adherents, Abbas provided protection to his kinsman but did not adopt the faith.

- He was captured during the Battle of Badr and accepted Islam just before the fall of Makkah, 20 years after his wife, Umm al-Fadl. Umm al-Fadl, whose real name was Lubaba bint al-Harith, was one of the earliest converts to Islam and was a close friend of Khadija (r.a.), the first wife of the Prophet (s.a.w.).

- Abbas (r.a.) was given the right to provide Zamzam water to pilgrims, the rights of which was passed down to his descendants. He is buried at the Jannatul Baqi cemetery in Madinah.

- The house of Ali (r.a.) was close to the house of Abbas (r.a.).

Darun Nadwah

This photo, which is north-west of the Ka’bah, shows the approximate place where the Darun Nadwah (Assembly House) was located. The house functioned as a house of parliament for the Quraysh and it was from here that they plotted to kill the Prophet (s.a.w.).

- Qusay bin Kilaab built the Darun Nadwah approximately 150 years before the birth of the Prophet (s.a.w.). The house was used for public meetings; discussions were held to settle important matters like war and peace, caravans assembled before going out, and marriages and other ceremonies were conducted. It was also from here that battalions received their flags before marching in battle

- The leaders of the Quraysh gathered in Darun Nadwah to scheme against Islam and the Muslims. When Islam was gathering strength in Makkah and the Quraysh feared their power would become undermined they held a special council to discuss how they could get rid of the Prophet (s.a.w.).

- Iblees (Satan) was also present in this meeting disguised as Sheik Jaleel of Najd. Some of the leaders of the Quraysh were of the opinion that they should banish the Prophet (s.a.w.) from their territory, while others felt they should imprison him till death. Finally, Abu Jahl put forth his idea that they should each select a strong youth from their tribe, arm them with swords and strike the Prophet (s.a.w.) in one go. By assassinating the Prophet (s.a.w.) in this manner,all of the clans would have a share of his blood and the Prophet (s.a.w.)’s protectors, Banu Abdu Munaf could not take on all of the Quraysh at one time. Sheik Jaleel (Iblees) commended the plan and the Quraysh set their trap.

- However, Jibraeel (a.s.) came to the Prophet (s.a.w.) and told him of the plot to assassinate him. That night, the Prophet (s.a.w.) asked Ali (r.a.) to sleep in his bed after assuring him that no harm would come to him and he himself managed to slip away unnoticed. It was only at dawn that the Quraysh realised that it was Ali (r.a.) that was sleeping on the bed and that they had been tricked. Regarding this incident Allah (swt) makes mention in Surah al-Anfal:

“Remember how the unbelievers plotted against you to imprison you, to kill you, or to exile you from Makkah. They plot and plan, but Allah plans too, and the best of planners is Allah.” [8:30]

- Darun Nadwah came into Muslim control after the conquest of Makkah. Due to the close proximity to the Masjid Haram, many Muslim leaders and Khulafa stayed there when they performed Hajj and Umrah, among them being Umar (r.a.) on one occasion.

- The Abbasi Khalifah, Mu’tadhid Billah included the Darun Nadwah in the Masjid Haram in the year 284 AH (897 CE)

House of Abu Jahal

This spot, just outside the present Masah is believed to be the approximate location of the house of Abu Jahal. Abu Jahal was a relative of the Prophet (s.a.w.) and one of the worst enemies of Islam. He was described by the Prophet (s.a.w.) as the ‘Fir’awn’ of this Ummah.

- Abu Jahal’s actual name was Amr ibn Hisham but he was commonly known as Abu Hakam (“Father of Wisdom") among the Quraysh as he was considered a wise man. His relentless hostility and belligerence towards Islam earned him the name Abu Jahal (Father of Ignorance) among the Muslims. He was a member of the Banu Makhzum clan of the Quraysh.

- Abu Jahal was not a real uncle of the Prophet (s.a.w.) [not his father’s real brother] but his father’s cousin. He was a staunch polytheist and greatly disliked the Prophet (s.a.w.), taking any opportunity to rebuke and publicly humiliate him.

- He was one of the greatest persecutors of the Muslims. When a Muslim convert was discovered among the hierarchy of a tribe, Abu Jahal would reprimand the convert and then ridicule him in front of his fellow tribesmen so he would lost their respect. When he discovered a trader had converted to Islam he gave orders that no one should engage in business with him. As a result, the convert trader was unable to sell his wares and became impoverished.

- Convert slaves belonging to the polytheist Quraysh received the harshest punishment. Abu Jahal beat Harithah bint al-Muammil (r.a.), one such slave, for her conversion to such an extent that she lost her eyesight. He attacked Sumayyah bint Khayyaṭ, the mother of Ammar (r.a.) and inflicted on her mortal wounds by stabbing her with a spear in her private parts. This blessed lady was the first to meet martyrdom in the cause of Islam.

- When Umar (r.a.) embraced Islam, he was determined to announce his new faith to the Prophet’s (s.a.w.) enemies and the first place he went to was the house of Abu Jahal. Umar (r.a.) knocked on his door, Abu Jahal came out and greeted him,
"Welcome! What brings you here?"
"I have come to tell you that I have embraced the religion of Allah and His Messenger, Muhammad," Umar calmly stated.
Abu Jahal heard this and disgustedley said, "May God ruin you and what you have brought!" and slammed the door shut.

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